The last stage uses the 22O resistor and ZD2 to turn on transistor Q2, which pulls the base of Q1 down, switching it hard on. In conjunction with the Vbe drop of Q2, ZD2 will turn off Q2 at a battery voltage of about 6.7V. In practice, this means that the headlight will be on most of the time while the motor is running and charging the battery. Heatsinks are required for both transistors. The circuit can be mounted adjacent to the battery with a single lead going to the headlight power feed.
|P1||5R - 3W|
|R2||1R - 1W|
|R3||22R - 5W|
|R4||22R - 5W|
|D1||6.2V - 1WZener|
|D2||6.2V - 1WZener|
|B1||6.6V - 7.2V|
|Lp1||DIP Beam 6V-25W Halogen|
Devices of this kind are particularly suited for road, traffic and yard alerts and in all cases where mains supply is not available but a powerful flashing light is yet necessary.
|LP1||12V-21W Car Filament Bulb (See Notes)|
|SW1||SPST Switch (3 Amp minimum)|
- Flashing frequency can be varied within a limited range by changing C1 value.
- As high dc currents are involved, please use suitably sized cables for battery and bulb(s) connections.
R15_____________3K3 1/4W Resistor
R16___________330K 1/4W Resistor
R17___________470K 1/4W Resistor
R18___________150K 1/4W Resistor
C6______________1µF 63V Electrolytic or Polyester Capacitor
D8,D9,D10____1N4148 75V 150mA Diodes
IC4_____________555 Timer IC
BZ1___________Piezo sounder (incorporating 3KHz oscillator)
R1,R2,R19_______1K 1/4W Resistors
R3-R6,R13,R17_100K 1/4W Resistors
R7,R15__________1M 1/4W Resistors
R8_____________50K 1/2W Trimmer Cermet
R9____________470R 1/4W Resistor
R10___________470K 1/4W Resistor
R11___________100K 1/2W Trimmer Cermet (see notes)
R12___________220K 1/4W Resistor (see notes)
R14,R16________68K 1/4W Resistors
R18____________22K 1/4W Resistor
R20___________150R 1/4W Resistor (see notes)
C1,C7_________100µF 25V Electrolytic Capacitors
C2,C3_________330nF 63V Polyester Capacitors
C4-C6___________4µ7 25V Electrolytic Capacitors
D1,D5______Red LEDs 3 or 5mm.
D2,D3________1N4148 75V 150mA Diodes
D4________BZX79C7V5 7.5V 500mW Zener Diode
IC1__________CA3140 or TL061 Op-amp IC
IC2____________4069 Hex Inverter IC
IC3____________4098 or 4528 Dual Monostable Multivibrator IC
Q1,Q2_________BC238 25V 100mA NPN Transistors
L1_____________10mH miniature Inductor (see notes)
BZ1___________Piezo sounder (incorporating 3KHz oscillator)
SW1____________SPST Slider Switch
B1_______________9V PP3 Battery (see notes) Clip for PP3 Battery
- D1 is necessary at set-up to monitor the sparking-plugs emission, thus allowing to find easily the best placement for the device on the dashboard or close to it. After the setting is done, D1 & R9 can be omitted or switched-off, with battery savings.
- During the preceding operation R8 must be adjusted for better results. The best setting of this trimmer is usually obtained when its value lies between 10 and 20K.
- You must do this first setting when the engine is on but the vehicle is stationary.
- The final simplest setting can be made with the help of a second person. Drive the vehicle and reach the speed needed. The helper must adjust the trimmer R11 until the device operates the beeper and D5. Reducing vehicle's speed the beep must stop.
- L1 can be a 10mH small inductor usually sold in the form of a tiny rectangular plastic box. If you need an higher sensitivity you can build a special coil, winding 130 to 150 turns of 0.2 mm. enameled wire on a 5 cm. diameter former (e.g. a can). Extract the coil from the former and tape it with insulating tape making thus a stand-alone coil.
- Current drawing is about 10mA. If you intend to use the car 12V battery, you can connect the device to the lighter socket. In this case R20 must be 330R.
- Depending on the engine's cylinders number, R11 can be unable to set the device properly. In some cases you must use R11=200K and R12=100K or less.
- If you need to set-up the device on the bench, a sine or square wave variable generator is required.
- To calculate the frequency relation to RPM in a four strokes engine you can use the following formula: Hz= (Number of cylinders * RPM) / 120.
- For a two strokes engine the formula is: Hz= (Number of cylinders * RPM) / 60.
- Thus, for a car with a four strokes engine and four cylinders the resulting frequency @ 3000 RPM is 100Hz.
- Temporarily disconnect C2 from IC1 pin 6. Connect the generator output across C2 and Ground. Set the generator frequency to e.g. 100Hz and trim R11 until you will hear the beeps and LED D5 will start flashing. Reducing the frequency to 99 or 98 Hz, beeping and flashing must stop.
- Please note that this circuit is not suited to Diesel engines.
Fig. 1: Car Fan Speed Controller Circuit Diagram
Potmeter VR1 is used to change the duty cycle of the multivibrator and hence the speed of the fan. If you feel that low/high level of the fan speed is not sufficient, increase/decrease the value of C2 (0.47 µF) to reduce/increase the speed of the fan.
Fig. 2: Pin Configuration of IRF540
Assemble the circuit on a general-purpose PCB and enclose in a suitable cabinet. Fix the potmeter at the front side of the case, so that you can easily change the speed of the fan. Connect the battery to the fan using wires with suitable current-carrying capacities. Use red wire for positive terminal and black wire for negative terminal.
3 volts Car Adapter Circuit Diagram
The circuit is connected to the car +12-V system via the cigarette lighter socket is advisable to use a fused version of the cigarette lighter plug. The +12-V arrives on the board via screw- terminal block J2. Diode D2 provides a reverse voltage protection, while C3 decouples the input to the switcher IC.
The LT1074CT briskly switches the supply voltage on and off in response to the signal applied to its F/B input, to the extent that the average output voltage is at the required level. The values of potential divider resistors R1-R3 have been chosen to attenuate the output voltage so that there is 2.5 V at the F/B pin. The difference between the attenuated output voltage and the internal 2.5-V reference is used to control the modulation effect of the switcher.
Components R2 and C2 provide frequency stabilisation for the feedback loop. Inductor L1 along with the LT1074CT form the main switching components, while C1 provides decoupling for the output load. The 3-V output voltage is taken from screw terminal J1. With this circuit built, boxed up and installed in your car, you can look forward to possibly your first ‘quiet’ long car journey.
Simple Servo Driver Circuit Diagram
When the position of a servo can be controlled via a voltage, it can be implemented via a potentiometer acting as a voltage divider. However, you could also use the output of a sensor such as a Hall sensor, an LDR or an NTC. That way you could easily create a feed-back loop that takes account of the position, light intensity or the temperature, and use this to control the servo. This can in turn be used to open or close a gas or water valve, for example. The circuit can therefore be said to be reasonably versatile.
There are special purpose PWM modulator ICs available, but it’s just as easy to use a quad op amp such as an LM324. In the circuit op amp C is configured to output a bias signal of half the supply voltage. Op amp D is set up as a square-wave oscillator, with its frequency set to about 50 Hz, which is the frequency required by the servo. The duty cycle is fixed and set to a value slightly higher than the maximum 10%.
This is followed by an integrator that changes the waveform of the pulse into a triangular form. Op amp B is configured as a comparator that compares this triangular wave with the DC voltage Uin. The output of the comparator is a PWM signal that is suitable to drive the servo directly. The frequency is about 50 Hz and the duty cycle can be varied from just under 5% to a good 10% when Uin varies from 0.5 to 4 V. The servo, an RS-2 in our prototype, reacts to this with an angular rotation of about 200 degrees. The transfer function in this case is therefore 200 / (4–0.5) = 57 degrees per volt.
Lights Control for Model Cars Circuit Diagram
The basic idea was to tap into the signal from the radio control receiver and, with a bit of help from a microcontroller, simulate indicators using flashing yellow LEDs and brake lights using red LEDs. Further red LEDs are used for the tail lights, and white LEDs for the headlights. Connectors JP4 and JP5 (channel 0) are wired in parallel, as are JP6 and JP7 (channel 1), allowing the circuit to be inserted into the servo control cables for the steering and drive motor respectively. The ATtiny45 micro-controller takes power from the radio receiver via diode D1. T1 and T2 buffer the servo signals to protect IC1’s inputs from damage.
JP3 is provided to allow the use of a separate lighting supply. This can either be connected to an additional four-cell battery pack or to the main supply for the drive motor. The val-ues given for resistors R8 to R17 are suitable for use with a 4.8 V supply. JP2 can take the form of a 2x10 header.
As usual the sof t ware is available as a free download from the Elektor web pages accom-panying this article, and ready-programmed microcontrollers are also available. The microcontroller must be taught what servo signals correspond to left and right turns, and to full throttle and full braking. First connect the fin-ished circuit to the radio control electronics in the car, making sure everything is switched of f. Fit jumper JP1 to enable configuration mode, switch on the radio control transmit-ter, set all proportional controls to their cen-tre positions, and then switch on the receiver. The indicator LEDs should first flash on both sides. Then the car will indicate left for 3 s: during this time quickly turn the steering on the radio control transmitter fully to the left and the throt tle to full reverse (maximum braking).
Hold the controls in this position until the car starts to indicate right. Then set the controls to their opposite extremes and hold them there until both sides flash again. Now, if the car has an internal combustion engine (and so cannot go in reverse), keep the throttle control on full; if the car has an electric motor, set the throttle to full reverse. Hold this position while both sides are flashing. Configuration is now complete and JP1 can be removed. If you make a mistake during the configuration process, start again from the beginning.
Going camping nowadays involves taking lots of electronic equipment whether for day to day running or for fun and entertainment. Most of the time a charged lead-acid battery and a power inverter would be used to ensure a smoothly organised holiday where ideally the missus and the children cheerfully use their electric and electronic gear!
With rechargeable lead-acid batteries it’s invariably useful if not essential to determine whether the power source you’re hauling along on your travels is losing capacity and needs to be topped up. The same circuit would also come in handy when going on a car or motorbike trip as it can check the status of a 12 V (car) or a 6 V (motorcycle) battery.
Switch S1 selects between 12 V and 6 V operation. A series diode, D1, protects the bargraph driver from reverse supply volt-age. A colour coded display with individual LEDs could be used instead of the common anode bargraph display for better indication of the state of the battery.
The circuit is based on the classical voltage regulator arrangement of a Zener diode connected to the base of a pass transistor. However, in this version we replace the conventional bipolar transistor with a power MOSFET.The circuit is symmetrical with respect to the negative and positive supplies, and so we shall only describe the positive half.
Voltage Limiter for Guitar Amplifiers Circuit Diagram
The input voltage (at most 50 V) supplies the chain of Zener diodes D1, D2 and D3 via resistor R3. The resistor limits the current through the Zener diodes to about 5 mA. The series connection of Zener diodes has the advantage that their dissipation is divided among them, as well as giving more options for the total voltage drop by judicious selection of individual components. The sum of the diode voltages (39 V with the values given) must be greater than the desired limiting out-put voltage by the gate-source voltage of the MOSFET. C1 smooths the voltage across the Zener diode chain. The circuit therefore not only limits the voltage, but also reduces the ripple (hum component) on the supply. The gate of the HEXFET is driven via R1. In con-junction with C4, this prevents the FET from oscillating.
Without any load the output voltage is rather higher than expected. With a small load, such as that presented by the output stage in its quiescent state, it falls to the desired value. The circuit then does not provide regulation of the output voltage, but rather a stabilisation function.The operation of the negative half of the circuit is identical to that of the positive half apart from the polarity of the voltages, and hence a P-channel MOSFE T must be used there.
It is worth noting that there is a relatively large degree of variation (up to a few volts) in the gate-source voltage of the HE XFETs used. This can be compensated for by selecting the Zener diodes in the chain and the cur-rent through them, but for most applications the exact voltage at which limiting begins to occur will not be critical.
The HEXFETs must be provided with adequate cooling. If possible, they can be attached to the heatsink already present in the amplifier; other wise, a separate heatsink will be required. A thermal rating of 2.5 K/W will be suitable.
Electronic Car Horn Circuit Diagram
Increase or decrease the frequencies by changing the values of C2 and C3. U1's outputs, pins 9 and 5, are connected to separate potentiometers to provide control over volume and balance. Each half of U2 produces 4W of audio that is delivered to two 8 ohms loudspeakers via capacitors C7 and C8.
A continuously working wiper is a big problem when it is raining slightly.The wiper control given here makes the wiper to sweep at rates from 1S to 10 S.
The circuit is build around an astable multivibrator using NE 555.Here the output at pin 3 remains high for a time period set by R2 ,and low for a time period set by R3.The low output pulse drives the transistor pair to drive the wiper motor to make one sweeping cycle and waits for next low pulse to arrive for next sweep.The high going pulse at pin 3 determines how many time should wiper should sweep in a given period of time.
Automatic Wiper Control Circuit Diagram:
- Connect the circuit to 12V line from Vehicle and connect the wiper motor and wiper switch as shown in figure.
- For setting the device first find out how much time it is required for the wiper to complete one sweep cycle.Now adjust
- R3 such that wiper makes correct one sweep cycle.Fix R2 some where on the dash board.And now the system is ready to use.
- You can adjust the sweep rate of the wiper using R2 according to the intensity of rain.
Source : Circuits today
Low Cost Garage Stop Light Circuit Diagram :
Under those conditions, the voltage developed across C1 is about 3 V, which is sufficient to trigger relaxation oscillator Ni. The BC547B is then switched on via buffer N2 so that D3 begins to lfash. Diodes Di and D2 provide an additional in-crease in the threshold of the circuit. The total voltage drop of 1.2 V across them ensures that the potential at pin I of the 4093 is always 1.2 V below the voltage developed by the solar cells. As the trip level of Ni lies at about 50 per cent of the supply voltage, the oscillator will only start when the supply voltage is higher than 2.4 V.
The circuit, including the solar cells, is best constructed on a small veroboard as shown in figure 3, and then fitted in a translucent or transparent manmade fibre case. The case is fitted onto the garage wall in a position where one of the car's headlights shines direct onto it. The LED is fitted onto the same wall, but a little higher so that it is in easy view of the driver of the car. When you drive into the garage, you must, of course, remember to switch on the main beam of your headlights!
For car alarms, emphasis should be put on hearing the audible alert and identifying it as belonging to your ‘wheels’. Unfortunately, modern car alarm systems seem to have more or less the same alarm sound especially if they are from the same brand. Also, to comply with legal noise restrictions, the alarm sound is not always loud enough to be heard if the car is parked down the road.
The circuit shown here is designed to help boost the alarm sound by also activating the car’s horn(s) when the alarm goes off.Internally the car alarm system often provides a signal that activates the (optional) engine immobilizer and/or volume (ultrasound) sensors. This signal usually goes Low upon system triggering and high again when the alarm system is deactivated.
Car Alarm Sound Booster Circuit Diagram :
The alarm activation signal is fed to the circuit through D1. When in idle state, T1’s gate is High and consequently the FET conducts, keeping power FET T2 firmly switched of f. When the system gets an active low signal, T1 switches of f allowing timing capacitor C2 to charge via R2. About 15 seconds later, when the voltage across C2 is high enough, T2 starts to conduct and relay RE1 is energized. This, in turn, provides the required path for the ‘lights flashing’ signal to energize RE2 and feed battery power to the car’s horn(s).
When the alarm system is turned off the activation signal returns to High. T1 starts to con-duct and rapidly discharges C2 via R3. T2 is then cut off and RE1 is de-energized. Diode D2 suppresses back EMF from RE1.The circuit draws less than 2 mA when idling. When activated the circuit’s current consumption is virtually that of the RE1 coil.RE1 is any simple SPST or SPDT relay, capable of switching about 0.5 A (at 12 V). The coil rating is for 12 VDC and a current requirement as low as you can find. Fuse F1 should be a slow blow type and rated about twice RE1’s coil current.
The BS170 in position T2 can sink a continuous current of about 0.5 A. However, a value of 1.2 A pulsed is specified by Fairchild for their devices. To keep the FET’s d-s current due to C2 discharging within safe limits, R2 may be increased, C2 decreased and R3 increased, all proportionally. A factor of 2 will keep the FET out of harm’s way with maybe a slight change in the 15-second delay and the sensitivity of the circuit.C1 is used as a smoothing capacitor and F2 should be rated in accordance with the horn(s) maximum current draw.
Caution.The installation and use of this circuit may be subject to legal restrictions in your country, state or area.
Author : Hagay Ben-Elie - Copyright : Elektor