The usual chargers of battery automotive, are simple and cheap appliances that charge continuously the battery, with a rythm of few amperes, for the time where the appliance is ON. If the holder do not close in time the charger, the battery will overcharge and her electrolytic faculty are lost with evaporation or likely exists destruction of her elements. The charger of circuit exceeds these faults. It checks electronic the situation of charge of battery and it has circuit of control with retroaction, that forces the battery charge with biggest rythm until charge completely.
When charge completely, it turns on one RED led (LD2). The charger has been drawn in order to charge batteries of 12V, ONLY. What should watch it from what it manufactures the circuit, they are the cables that connect the transformer with the circuit and in the continuity the battery, should they are big cross-section, so that heat when it passes from in them the current of charge and also they do not cause fall of voltage at the way of current through them.
After assembling of the circuit, adjust TR1 to null value, power-up and make the following adjustments :-
- Without connecting the battery check that the 2 LED?s are turned on.
- Connect a car battery to the circuit and check that LD2 is OFF and a current (normally 2A to 4A) is flowing to the battery.
- Adjust TR1 until LD2 turns ON and the charge current is cut.
- Adjust TR1 to null value and charge the battery using the hydrometer technique (if you do not have or do not know how to use a hydrometer, then use a good condition battery and charge).
Carefully adjust TR1 so that LD2 begins to turn ON and the charge current falls to a few hundred milliamps (mA). If TR1 is set correctly then in the next round of charging you will noticed LD2 begin to flicker as the battery is being charged. When battery is completely charged, LD2 turns ON completely.TR1 does not need further adjustment anymore. Q1 is connected in line with the battery and is fired by R3, R4 and LD2. The R2, C1, TR1 and D2 sense the voltage of the battery terminal and activate Q2 when the voltage of the battery terminal exceeds the value predetermined by TR1.
When an uncharged battery is connected, the terminal voltage is low. Under this circumstance, Q2 is turned OFF and Q1 is fired in each half cycle by R3, R4 and LD2. The Q1 functions as a simple rectifier and charges the battery. If the battery terminal voltage is increased above the level that had been fixed by TR1, then Q2 shifts the control of Q1 gate. This deactivates Q1 and cuts off the current supply to the battery and turns LD2 ON indicating that the charge has been completed. Q1 and bridge rectifier GR1 should be mounted on heatsinks to prevent overheating. M1 is a 5A DC ammeter to measure the charge current.