Low Voltage Cut-Out

This circuit will detect when the voltage of a 12v battery reaches a low level. This is to prevent deep-discharge or maybe to prevent a vehicle battery becoming discharged  to a point where it will not start a vehicle. This circuit is different to anything previously presented. It has HYSTERESIS. Hysteresis is a feature where the upper and lower detection-points are separated by a gap.
Circuit diagram :
Low-Voltage-Cut-Out Circuit-Diagram
Normally,  the circuit will deactivate the relay when the voltage is 10v and when the load is removed. The battery voltage will rise slightly by as little as 50mV and turn the circuit ON again. This is called "Hunting." The off/on timing has been reduced by adding the 100u. But to prevent this totally from occurring, a 10R to 47R is placed in the emitter lead. The circuit will turn off at 10v but will not turn back on until 10.6v when a 33R is in the emitter. The value of this resistor and the turn-on and turn-off voltages will also depend on the resistance of the relay.
Author : Colin Michel - Copyright : 200 Transistor Circuits