Relative Field Strength Meter For A DMM

Many passive field strength meters have appeared in the past, typically using a 50mA analog meter movement if reasonable sensitivity was to be obtained. This circuit is similar but has the advantage that it works with the high-impedance load of a digital multimeter, typically switched to the 200mV range. The sensitivity is adequate for low power equipment like CB radios, cordless phones and model R/C sets (cars, model airplanes, etc).
For best results, use OA81 or similar germanium diodes. Modern Schottky signal diodes could also be used but the results are not as good. The circuit can be wired directly into a small plastic box with protruding banana posts to match the terminals on your DMM. A banana jack can also be used for the antenna which could be just a 500mm length of wire as a starting point.
Circuit diagram:

Author: Gerard La Rooy Copyright: Silicon Chip Electronics
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1W LED Driver Circuit

This circuit is designed to drive the 1W LEDs that are now commonly available. Their non-linear voltage to current relationship and variation in forward voltage with temperature necessitates the use of a 350mA, constant-current power source as provided by this supply. In many respects, the circuit operates like a conventional step-down (buck) switching regulator.
Transistor Q1 is the switching element, while inductor L1, diode D1 and the 100mF capacitor at the output form the energy transfer and storage elements. The pass transistor (Q1) is switch-ed by Q2, which together with the components in its base circuit, forms a simple oscillator. A 1nF capacitor provides the positive feedback necessary for oscillation. The output current is sensed by transistor Q3 and the two parallelled resistors in its base-emitter circuit.
Circuit diagram:
When the current reaches about 350mA, the voltage drop across the resistors exceeds the base-emitter forward voltage of transistor Q3 (about 0.6V), switching it on. Q3’s collector then pulls Q2’s base towards ground, switching it off, which in turn switches off the main pass transistor (Q1).
The time constant of the 15kW resistor and 4.7nF capacitor connected to Q2’s base adds hysteresis to the loop, thus ensuring regulation of the set output current. The inductor was made from a small toroid salvaged from an old computer power supply and rewound with 75 turns of 0.25mm enamelled copper wire, giving an inductance of about 620mH. The output current level should be trimmed before connecting your 1W LED. To do this, wire a 10W 5W resistor across the output as a load and adjust the value of one or both of the resistors in the base-emitter circuit of Q3 to get 3.5V (maximum) across the load resistor.
Author: Nick Baroni - Copyright: Silicon Chip
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Baud Rate Generator

In this article, an RC oscillator is used as a baud rate generator. If you can calibrate the frequency of such a circuit sufficiently accurately (within a few percent) using a frequency meter, it will work very well. However, it may well drift a bit after some time, and then…. Consequently, here we present a small crystal-controlled oscillator. If you start with a crystal frequency of 2.45765 MHz and divide it by multiples of 2, you can very nicely obtain the well-known baud rates of 9600, 4800, 2400, 600, 300, 150 and 75. If you look closely at this series, you will see that 1200 baud is missing, since divider in the 4060 has no Q10 output!
Baud Rate Generator

If you do not need 1200 baud, this is not a problem. However, seeing that 1200 baud is used in practice more often than 600 baud, we have put a divide-by-two stage in the circuit after the 4060, in the form of a 74HC74 flip-flop. This yields a similar series of baud rates, in which 600 baud is missing. The trimmer is for the calibration purists; a 33 pF capacitor will usually provide sufficient accuracy. The current consumption of this circuit is very low (around 1mA), thanks to the use of CMOS components.
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Car Headlights Timer Circuit

Pushbutton activated, Very simple circuitry
This device is a simple timer, allowing to keep on the headlights of your vehicle for about 1min. and 30sec., e.g. when accessing some dark place, without the necessity of coming back to switch-off the lights. Pushing on P1 allows C1 charging to full 12V battery supply. Therefore Q1 is driven hard-on, driving in turn Q2 and its Relay load. The headlights are thus activated by means of the Relay contact wired in parallel to the vehicle's headlights switch. RL1 remains activated until C1 is almost fully discharged, i.e. When its voltage falls below about 0.7V. The timing delay of the circuit depends by C1 and R1 values and was set to about 1min. and 30sec.
In practice, due to electrolytic capacitors wide tolerance value, this delay will vary from about 1min. and 30sec. to 1min. and 50sec. An interesting variation is to use the inside lamp as a command source for the timer. In this way, when the door is opened C1 is charged, but it will start to discharge only when the door will be closed, substituting pushbutton operation. To enable the circuit acting in this way, simply connect the cathode of a 1N4002 diode to R1-C1 junction and the anode to the "live" lead of the inside lamp. This lead can be singled-out using a voltmeter, as it is the lead where a 12V voltage can be measured in respect to the vehicle frame when the lamp is on.

Circuit diagram:
Car Headlights Timer Circuit


Parts:
R1 = 4.7K - 1/4W Resistor
R2 = 1K - 1/4W Resistors
R3 = 1K - 1/4W Resistors
C1 = 100µF - 25V Electrolytic Capacitor (See Notes)
D1 = 1N4002 - 100V 1A Diode
Q1 = BC547 - 45V 100mA NPN Transistor
Q2 = BC327 - 45V 800mA PNP Transistor
P1 = SPST Pushbutton
RL1 = Relay with SPDT 10A min. switch
Coil Voltage 12V. Coil resistance 150-600 Ohms
Notes:
  • The Relay contact must be rated at 10A or more.
  • Time-delays obtained trying different tolerance electrolytic capacitors for C1:
  • 100µF = 1'30" to 1'50"
  • 47µF = 0'45" to 1'05"
  • 220µF = 3'15" to 4'15"
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Hydrophone Booster Amplifier (HA2)

Hydrophone Booster Amplifier (HA2)
The HP series Hydrophone Booster Amplifier (HA2) amplifies low-level hydrophone signals over a wide range of frequencies. It has a minimum gain of 25dB and an input and output impedance of 50Ω. The HA2 is designed for use with either Precision Acoustics membrane hydrophone or Precision Acoustics HP Series Hydrophone Measurement System, which is shown in Fig 1.
Hydrophone Booster Amplifier
Alternatively, the HA2 may be used when the acoustic signal is provided by a high output impedance hydrophone, such as a GEC-Marconi membrane device, or a conventional hydrophone. In this instance a BNC/MCX adaptor is used which connects directly to the HP Series Submersible Preamplifier, using it as a buffer amplifier, (i.e. the standard Precision Acoustic HP Series configuration shown in Fig 1 is used, but without the interchangeable probe).
The HA2 amplifier is straightforward to use but the following points should be noted:
  • The output of the amplifier should be correctly terminated in 50Ω before operation.
  • The HA2 amplifier is non-inverting but this is of no consequence when used with the HP Series interchangeable probes as their design takes this into account. However when a submersible preamplifier is used as a high impedance buffer amplifier (as in Fig 2) the system output from the HA2 will be inverted as the HP Series Submersible Preamplifier is inverting.
Before Connecting the unit please read WARNING
To Connect
To  Disconnect
1 Connect Output Load 1 Remove RF Input
2 Apply DC Voltage 2 Remove DC Volts
3 Apply RF Input 3 Remove Load
Specification (HA2 Amplifier Only)
Voltage Gain = 25dB minimum
Bandwidth =  50kHz to 125MHz ±1.0dB
Maximum Output Level = 29dBm for 1dB compression (18.1V pk – pk into 50Ω load)
Input Impedance = Nominal 50Ω
Output Impedance  Nominal 50Ω (VSWR 2:1)
Output Noise Level = Typically 70μV pk – pk (bandwidth 125MHz)
Noise Figure = Typically 10dB
Phase = Non-inverting
Terminations:
Front panel = Input BNC socket BNC Output socket
Rear panel Power Requirements = 28v dc output to supply DC Coupler 100/120/220/240V ac, 50 to 60Hz,
7.5W
Operating Temperature = 0 to 50°C
Size = (90mm × 205mm ×194mm)
Weight = 2.6kg
Copyright : Precision Acoustics March 2004
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Step-Up Booster Powers Eight White LEDs

Tiny white LEDs are capable of delivering ample white light without the fragility problems and costs associated with fluorescent backlights. They do pose a problem however in that their forward voltage can be as high as 4 V, precluding them being from powered directly from a single Li-Ion cell. Applications requiring more white LEDs or higher efficiency can use an LT1615 boost converter to drive a series connected array of LEDs. The high efficiency circuit (about 80%) shown here can provide a constant-current drive for up to eight LEDs. Driving eight white LEDs in series requires at least 29 V at the output and this is possible thanks to the internal 36-V, 350-mA switch in the LT1615.
The constant-current design of the circuit guarantees a steady current through all LEDs, regardless of the forward voltage differences between them. Although this circuit was designed to operate from a single Li-Ion battery (2.5V to 4.5V), the LT1615 is also capable of operating from inputs as low as 1 V with relevant output power reductions. The Motorola MBR0520 surface mount Schottky diode (0.5 A 20 V) is a good choice for D1 if the output voltage does not exceed 20 V. In this application however, it is better to use a diode that can withstand higher voltages like the MBR0540 (0.5 A, 40 V). Schottky diodes, with their low forward voltage drop and fast switching speed, are the best match.
Many different manufacturers make equivalent parts, but make sure that the component is rated to handle at least 0.35 A. Inductor L1, a 4.7-µH choke, is available from Murata, Sumida, Coilcraft, etc. In order to maintain the constant off-time (0.4 ms) control scheme of the LT1615, the on-chip power switch is turned off only after the 350-mA (or 100-mA for the LT1615-1) current limit is reached. There is a 100-ns delay between the time when the current limit is reached and when the switch actually turns off. During this delay, the inductor current exceeds the current limit by a small amount. This current overshoot can be beneficial as it helps increase the amount of available output current for smaller inductor values.
Step-Up_Booster Powers_Eight_White_LEDs_Circuit_Diagram1
This will be the peak current passed by the inductor (and the diode) during normal operation. Although it is internally current-limited to 350 mA, the power switch of the LT1615 can handle larger currents without problems, but the overall efficiency will suffer. Best results will be o btained when IPEAK is kept well below 700 mA for the LT1615.The LT1615 uses a constant off-time control scheme to provide high efficiencies over a wide range of output current. The LT1615 also contains circuitry to provide protection during start-up and under short-circuit conditions.
When the FB pin voltage is at less than approximately 600 mV, the switch off-time is increased to 1.5 ms and the current limit is reduced to around 250 mA (i.e., 70% of its normal value). This reduces the average inductor current and helps minimize the power dissipation in the LT1615 power switch and in the external inductor L1 and diode D1. The output current is determined by Vref/R1, in this case, 1.23V/68 = 18 mA). Further information on the LT1615 may be found in the device datasheets which may be downloaded from www.linear-tech.com/pdf/16151fa.pdf
Author: D. Prabakaran - Copyright: Elektor Electronics
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Push Off Push On

The ubiquitous 555 has yet another airing with this bistable using a simple push-button to provide a push-on, push-off action. It uses the same principle of the stored charge in a capacitor taking a Schmitt trigger through its dead-band. Whereas the Schmitt trigger in that reference was made from discrete components, the in-built dead-band arising from the two comparators, resistor chain and bistable within the 555 is used instead. The circuit demonstrates a stand-by switch, the state of which is indicated by illumination of either an orange or red LED, exclusively driven by the bipolar output of pin 3. Open-collector output (pin 7) pulls-in a 100-mA relay to drive the application circuit; obviously if an ON status LED is provided elsewhere, then the relay, two LEDs and two resistors can be omitted, with pin 3 being used to drive the application circuit, either directly or via a transistor.
Circuit diagram:
Push Off Push On

The original NE555 (non-CMOS) can source or sink 200 mA from / into pin 3. Component values are not critical; the ‘dead-band’ at input pins 2 and 6 is between 1/3 and 2/3 of the supply voltage. When the pushbutton is open-circuit, the input is clamped within this zone (at half the supply voltage) by two equal-value resistors, Rb. To prevent the circuit powering-up into an unknown condition, a power-up reset may be applied with a resistor from supply to pin 4 and capacitor to ground. A capacitor and high-value resistor (Rt) provide a memory of the output state just prior to pushing the button and creates a dead time, during which button contact bounce will not cause any further change. When the button is pressed, the stored charge is sufficient to flip the output to the opposite state before the charge is dissipated and clamped back into the neutral zone by resistors Rb. A minimum of 0.1 µF will work, but it is safer to allow for button contact-bounce or hand tremble; 10 µF with 220 k gives approximately a 2-second response.
Author: Trevor Skeggs - Copyright: Elektor July-August 2004
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