Clap Switch Circuit Diagram

Here’s a clap switch free from false triggering. To turn on/off any appliance, you just have to clap twice. The circuit changes its output state only when you clap twice within the set time period. Here, you’ve to clap within 3 seconds. The clap sound sensed by condenser microphone is amplified by transistor T1. The amplified signal provides negative pulse to pin 2 of IC1 and IC2, triggering both the ICs. IC1, commonly used as a timer, is wired here as a monostable multivibrator. Trigging of IC1 causes pin 3 to go high and it remains high for a certain time period depending on the selected values of R7 and C3. This ‘on’ time (T) of IC1 can be calculated using the following relationship: T=1.1R7.C3 seconds where R7 is in ohms and C3 in microfarads. On first clap, output pin 3 of IC1 goes high and remains in this standby position for the preset time.Also, LED1 glows for this period. The output of IC1 provides supply voltage to IC2 at its pins 8 and 4.
Circuit diagram :
Clap Switch  Circuit Diagram
Now IC2 is ready to receive the triggering signal. Resistor R10 and capacitor C7 connected to pin 4 of IC2 prevent false triggering when IC1 provides the supply voltage to IC2 at first clap. On second clap, a negative pulse triggers IC2 and its output pin 3 goes high for a time period depending on R9 and C5. This provides a positive pulse at clock pin 14 of decade counter IC 4017 (IC3). Decade counter IC3 is wired here as a bistable. Each pulse applied at clock pin 14 changes the output state at pin 2 (Q1) of IC3 because Q2 is connected to reset pin 15. The high output at pin 2 drives transistor T2 and also energizes relay RL1. LED2 indicates activation of relay RL1 and on/off status of the appliance. A free-wheeling diode (D1) prevents damage of T2 when relay de-energizes.
Author : Mohammad Usman Qureshi - Copyright : Electronics For You May 2003
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Blown Fuse Indicator

This blown fuse indicator will work with a wide range of DC supply voltages from 5V to 50V. It illuminates LED1 when the fuse blows. With the fuse intact, Q1 is held off and there is no bias current available for the base of Q2. So the LED is off. When the fuse blows, a small current flows via the base-emitter junctions of Darlington transistor Q1, through its base resistor R1 and then via the load. Typically this current will be around 20μA and this turns on Q1 which provides base current to Q2 which then turns on to illuminate the LED.
Circuit diagram:
blown_fuse_indicator circuit diagram
The emitter current of Q2 is limited by Q3 which turns when the current reaches about 10mA, to shunt base current away from Q2. The three resistor values not given in the circuit are dependent on the supply voltage and can be calculated from the following simple equations:
  • R1(kΩ) = V(DC)/0.02 = 560kΩ for 12V DC
  • R2(kΩ) = V(DC)/2 = 5.6kΩ for 12V DC
  • R3(Ω) = V(DC)/0.02 = 560Ω for 12V DC
R3 should be included for voltages above about 20V otherwise the heat dissipation in Q2 will be too great. At lower voltages it can be omitted. Any general purpose NPN transistors can be used for Q2 and Q3, provided they will handle the DC supply voltage. The PNP Darlington, Q1, could be an MPSA65, available from Dick Smith Electronics (Cat Z-2088).
Author: Keith Gooley - Copyright: Silicon Chip
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USB Switch For Printers Circuit Diagram

This circuit switches a printer’s USB connection from a PC to a laptop. What was needed was a method of allowing a laptop to use the printer occasionally while at all other times the printer would be connected to the PC. Instead of unplugging the printer from the PC and then into the laptop, the circuit switches the USB connection automatically. K1 and K2 are standard type-B USB sockets, while K3 is a USB type-A socket. The USB lead from the laptop plugs into K2 while the PC’s USB lead plugs into K1. A USB cable from K3 connects the printer to this circuit. The cable from the PC is always plugged in while the cable from the laptop is only connected whenever this device needs to print. In normal operation the laptop is not connected to K2, so the USB signal to the printer comes from the PC via K1, the normally closed contacts of relay Re1, through to K3 and from there to the printer.
Circuit diagram:
usb-switch-for-printers-circuit-diagramw
Whenever the laptop is connected up, the presence of the 5-volt power signal on its USB port causes Re1 to switch over to the printer’s connection to K2 and the laptop. Unplugging the laptop returns control of the printer back to there PC. The circuit was tested on a USB 1.1 compliant printer and a PC and laptop that had USB-2.0 high-speed ports. The PCB traces for D+ and D– should be kept as short as possible and ideally should be the same length. The relay should be a low-power type (5 V at 100 mA coil current) with two changeover (c/o) contacts. Switch S1 is only required in situations where the two computers you want to select between are permanently present and connected up to the circuit. The switch then selects the computer having access to the printer.
Author: Liam Maskey - Copyright: Elektor Electronics
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110 and 220V AC LED Voltage Indicator

Useful for power lines control, Simple, transformerless circuitry
This circuit, designed on request, has proven to be useful to indicate when the voltage in a power supply line is changing from 120V to 240Vac. It can be used in different circumstances and circuits, mainly when an increase in ac or dc supply voltage needs to be detected. D3 illuminates when the line voltage is approaching 120V and will remain in the on state also at 240V supply. On the other hand, D6 will illuminate only when the line voltage is about 240V and will stay on because the latching action of Q1, Q2 and related components. C1, D1 and D2 provide a low dc voltage in the 4.5V - 6V range in order to allow proper operation of latch circuit and LEDs.
Circuit diagram:
110-220vac-voltage- indicator
Parts:
R1__________470R 1/2W Resistor
R2__________220K 1/4W Resistor
R3,R7_______470R 1/4W Resistors
R4__________1K 1/4W Resistor
R5__________2K2 1/4W Resistor
R6_________330R 1/4W Resistor
C1_________330nF 630V Polyester Capacitor
C2_________10µF 25V Electrolytic Capacitor
D1,D2______N4007 1000V 1A Diode
D3,D6______LEDs (Color and shape at will)
D4_________BZX79C10 10V 500mW Zener Diode (See Notes)
D5_________1N4148 75V 150mA Diode
Q1_________BC547 45V 100mA NPN Transistor
Q2_________BC557 45V 100mA PNP Transistor
Notes:
  • D4 value could require some adjustment in order to allow precise switching of the circuit at the chosen voltage. If the case, please try values in the 8.2V - 15V range.
  • Warning! The circuit is connected to 240Vac mains, then some parts in the circuit board are subjected to lethal potential! Avoid touching the circuit when plugged and enclose it in a plastic box.
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Motor Turn Stall Detector

In single phase AC induction motors, often used in fridges and washing machines, a start winding is used during the starting phase. When the motor has reached a certain speed, this winding is turned off again. The start winding is slightly out of phase to the run winding. The motor will only start turning when the current through this winding is out of phase to that of the run winding. The phase difference is normally provided by placing a capacitor of several µF in series with the start winding. When the motor reaches a minimum speed, a centrifugal switch turns off the start winding.
The circuit diagram doesn’t show a centrifugal switch; instead it has a triac that is turned on during the staring phase. For clarity, the series capacitor isn’t shown in the diagram. Once the motor turns it will continue to do so as long as it isn’t loaded too much. When it has to drive too heavy a load it will almost certainly stall. A large current starts to flow (as the motor no longer generates a back EMF), which is limited only by the resistance of the winding. This causes the motor to overheat after a certain time and causes permanent damage. It is therefore important to find a way to detect when the motor turns, which happens to be surprisingly easy. When the motor is turning and the start winding is not used, the rotation induces a voltage in this winding.
Circuit diagram:
motor-turn-stall-detector-circuit diagram
This voltage will be out of phase since the winding is in a different position to the run winding. When the motor stops turning this voltage is no longer affected and will be in phase with the mains voltage. The graph shows some of the relevant waveforms. More information can be found in the application note for the AN2149 made by Motorola, which can be downloaded from their website at www.motorola.com. We think this contains some useful ideas, but keep in mind that the circuit shown is only partially completed. As it stands, it certainly can’t be put straight to use. We should also draw your attention to the fact that mains voltages can be lethal, so take great care when the mains is connected!
Author: Karel Walraven - Copyright: Elektor July-August 2004
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Video Isolator Circuit Diagram

These days many more audio-visual devices in the home are connected together. This is especially the case with the TV, which may be connected to a DVD player, a hard disk recorder, a surround-sound receiver and often a PC as well. This often creates a problem when earth loops are created in the shielding of the video cables, which may cause hum and other interference. The surround-sound receiver contains a tuner that takes its signal from a central aerial distribution system. The TV is also connected to this and it’s highly likely that the PC has a TV-card, which again is connected to the same system. On top of this, there are many analogue connections between these devices, such as audio cables. The usual result of this is that there will be a hum in the audio installation, but in some cases you may also see interference on the TV screen.
The ground loop problem can be overcome by galvanically isolating the video connections, for example at the aerial inputs of the surround-sound receiver and the TV. Special adaptors or filters are sold for this purpose, known as video ground loop isolators. Good news: such a filter can also be easily made at home by yourself. There are two ways in which you can create galvanic isolation in a TV cable. The first is to use an isolating transformer with two separate windings. The other is to use two coupling capacitors in series with the cable. The latter method is easily the simplest to implement and generally works well enough in practice. The simplest way to produce such a ‘filter’ is as an in-line adapter, so you can just plug it onto either end of a TV aerial cable.
Diagram and snapshoot:
video-isolator-circuit-diagram1
The only requirements are a male and female coax plug and two capacitors. The latter have to be suitable for high-frequency applications, such as ceramic or MKT types. It is furthermore advisable to choose types rated for high voltages (400 V), since the voltages across these capacitors can be higher than you might expect (A PC that isn’t connected to the mains Earth can have a voltage as high as 115 V (but at a very low, safe current), caused by the filter capacitors in its power supply. These capacitors don’t need to be high value ones, since they only have to pass through frequencies above about 50 MHz. Values of 1 nF or 2.2 nF are therefore sufficient. To make the isolator you should connect one capacitor between the two earth connections of the coax plugs and the other between the two signal connections.
The mechanical construction has to be sturdy enough such that the connections to the capacitors won’t break whenever the inline adapter is removed forcibly. A good way to do this is to make a cover from a piece of PVC piping for the central part. Wrap aluminium foil round the outside and connect it to one of the plugs, so that the internal parts are properly shielded from external interference. Make sure that the aluminium foil doesn’t make contact with the other plug, otherwise you lose the isolation. The majority of earth loops will disappear when you connect these filters to all used outputs of the central aerial distribution system where the signal enters the house.
Harry Baggen
Elektor Electronics 2008
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Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulator

Current generated flows through clips placed on the earlobes Output current adjustable from 80 to 600 microAmperes
Owing to the recent launching in Europe of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES) portable sets, we have been "Electronically Stimulated" in designing a similar circuit for the sake of hobbyists. CES is the most popular technique for electrically boosting brain power, and has long been prescribed by doctors, mainly in the USA, for therapeutic reasons, including the treatment of anxiety, depression, insomnia, and chemical dependency. CES units generate an adjustable current (80 to 600 microAmperes) that flows through clips placed on the earlobes.
The waveform of this device is a 400 milliseconds positive pulse followed by a negative one of the same duration, then a pause of 1.2 seconds. The main frequency is 0.5 Hz, i.e. a double pulse every 2 seconds. Some people report that this kind of minute specialized electrical impulses contributes to achieve a relaxed state that leaves the mind alert. Obviously we can't claim or prove any therapeutic effectiveness for this device, but if you are interested in trying it, the circuit is so cheap and so simple to build that an attempt can be made with quite no harm.
Circuit diagram:
cranial-electrotherapy-stimulator-circuit diagram
Parts:
R1___________1M5 1/4W Resistor
R2___________15K 1/4W Resistor
R3___________100K Linear Potentiometer
R4___________2K2 1/4W Resistor
C1___________330nF 63V Polyester Capacitor
C2___________100µF 25V Electrolytic Capacitor
D1___________3mm. Red LED
IC1___________7555 or TS555CN CMos Timer IC
IC2___________4017 Decade counter with 10 decoded outputs IC
SW1__________SPST Slider Switch
B1____________9V PP3 Battery Clip for PP3 Battery
Two Earclips with wires (see notes)

Circuit operation:
IC1 forms a narrow pulse, 2.5Hz oscillator feeding IC2. This chip generates the various timings for the output pulses. Output is taken at pins 2 & 3 to easily obtain negative going pulses also. Current output is limited to 600µA by R2 and can be regulated from 80 to 600µA by means of R3. The LED flashes every 2 seconds signaling proper operation and can also be used for setting purposes. It can be omitted together with R4, greatly increasing battery life.
Notes:
  • In order to obtain a more precise frequency setting take R1=1M2 and add a 500K trimmer in series with it.
  • In this case use a frequency meter to read 2.5Hz at pin 3 of IC1, or an oscilloscope to read 400msec pulses at pins 2, 3 or 10, adjusting the added trimmer.
  • A simpler setting can be made adjusting the trimmer to count exactly a LED flash every 2 seconds.
  • Earclips can be made with little plastic clips and cementing the end of the wire in a position suited to make good contact with earlobes.
  • Ultra-simple earclips can be made using a thin copper foil with rounded corners 4 cm. long and 1.5 cm. wide, soldering the wire end in the center, and then folding the foil in two parts holding the earlobes.
  • To ensure a better current transfer, this kind of devices usually has felt pads moistened with a conducting solution interposed between clips and skin.
  • Commercial sets have frequently a built-in timer. Timing sessions last usually 20 minutes to 1 hour. For this purpose you can use the Timed Beeper the Bedside Lamp Timer or the Jogging Timer circuits available on this website, adjusting the timing components in order to suit your needs.

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